Dolomite Beach – Our Experience
Dolomite Beach is probably the most famous beach in the country right now – no mean feat considering the fashionableness of Boracay and popularity of Palawan. Certainly our excitement levels were high once we rounded the corner on to Roxas Boulevard and the Filipino-American Friendship Footbridge that leads pedestrians safely over the Manila traffic and onto Manila Baywalk, came into view.
We had seen so many images, watched plenty of YouTube videos and listened to numerous news updates, Dolomite Beach and the surrounding area now seemed like some kind of celebrity. And just like a celebrity, the beach nourishment project has been controversial at times, popular and well-loved by some and for others, completely unable to impress no matter what - even the spacing of the letters on the entrance arch caused offence to the previously unknown population of font sensitive people. Finally, it was our turn to walk on the familiar looking footbridge, under the (in)famous “Manila Baywalk Dolomite Beach” arch and on the crushed dolomite of Dolomite Beach.
For me, Dolomite Beach did not disappoint. It’s impressive. It’s impressive even without knowing or having seen Manila Bay at its lowest, dirtiest point. To think that this bright, clean space with many people enjoying themselves was once an unofficial rubbish dump with watered down faeces lapping the shore, is inconceivable now. For those that do remember it like that, this new space is a positive God send.
While standing on the crushed dolomite, looking out across the glistening waters of the bay and down the length of the coconut tree lined beach, all I could see were smiles on the faces of the beach-goers. They were happy. They were grateful for the improvement. For me, that was the official and final answer to all the talk.
Photo by: China D @projectgoals.ph
Up until then, it was difficult to know what to think of the overall rehabilitation project – was it good, was it somehow damaging? Because all the talk about it was so mixed up with political opinions and agendas, even some of the local population had been against it (and presumably in favour of leaving it a festering dump). I suspected that they had formed their opinion based on emotion and the obviously biased monologues of their favoured political party. Seeing the talked-about-beach with my own eyes and seeing the contrast between it and the surrounding city that has also degenerated over the years, there was no doubt that the rehabilitation project was money well spent and the negative talk just your classic, cheap political points grab.
The YouTube Factor
As I was reading more about the beach nourishment project from a sign on an uncrushed block of dolomite – a quirky, creative touch on the beach – a handful of the YouTubers responsible for posting honest reviews and footage of Dolomite Beach approached. They filmed as we chatted about Dolomite Beach and what I thought about it. As I gave my honest opinion based on my first impression, I noted their broad smiles and the brightness of their eyes. In that moment, I realised that this rehabilitation project means so much more than just a new, clean environment for locals to use recreationally. This will be a source of life for an entire section of Manila that up until now had prevented tourists from coming and spending their money. Why would they? The place was positively scary before the clean-up. I can report from my own experience that, not only are tourists very welcome here, they are wanted.
Even as I walked back over the footbridge, I was stopped by a group of young girls who wanted to take a picture with me. After that, I was asked by a couple more people if I would pose with them and their new area that they could be proud to show the world. All I felt in that moment was happiness for a community that deserves a dignified space to enjoy.
As social media has allowed people to post their personal ideas and opinions directly for any and all to see, YouTube has provided locals with a platform to post videos of their personal experience and opinion on Dolomite Beach. It's one of the few place where this can be done without a politically motivated individual representing a particular government body chiming in with conflicting and confusing information.
Click on the links to see their YouTube pages.
How Did It All Begin? Why Make an Artificial Beach?
Once a pearl in the regalia of the Philippines, Manila Bay had become (in the words of the country’s own president) a cesspool. One of the world’s greatest natural harbours had turned from stunning visitors with its natural beauty and nurturing an array of marine life, into a place that harboured faecal colonies in the millions, held layers of rubbish on and under its shoreline, plus, produced a breeze that smelled worse than a sewer. It didn’t take an expert, although they certainly weighed in, to realise that something had to be done for the safety of residents and the future of the environment - not to mention the reputation of the entire nation. No less an authority than the Supreme Court of the Philippines ordered that the water quality of Manila Bay be restored.
Photo by: Philippine News Agency
Given the dire state of Manila Bay, it’s perhaps surprising that its rehabilitation was controversial from the beginning. Critics came up with a host of reasons why it was a bad idea. Supporters of the project, including a number of government departments all the way up to the president of the Philippines, were adamant and staunch in their belief that it should be done and done as soon as possible. Once the rehabilitation project was finally underway – over a decade after the Supreme Court first issued its mandamus - critics asked, why now? Should we bother at all?
In a country that is stricken with pockets of poverty, rife with corruption and then struggling through a pandemic, it was suggested that the clean-up of Manila Bay and the creation of Dolomite Beach wasn’t important enough to be a priority. Critics were quick to condemn the idea of rehabilitation, siting any and all the problems that the Philippines face as good reasons; but they were slow to realise the far-reaching consequences of a successful clean-up – a project such as this could indeed be a catalyst, if not an outright cure, for a number of the country’s problems. Skip to results of the clean-up
Thankfully, the green light for budgeting the rehabilitation project was given just before the outbreak of Covid-19. Even after the virus had dared infiltrated the county’s borders (the world has since learned that viruses have no respect for border control protocols), the Philippine president, Rodrigo Duterte, insisted that just like his other projects, this one must be carried out.
The Manila Bay rehabilitation operation was officially started on January 27, 2019 – eleven years after the Supreme Court had originally ordered 13 government agencies to make the area clean enough for recreation. Finally, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) secretary Roy A. Cimatu, who made the official announcement, was joined by 5000 others from these 13 government agencies and the massive list of things to do in order to get Manila Bay even close to safe again, began to be ticked off.
It’s been two years since Dolomite Beach was first opened to an excited public - a soft opening with just the sand layer. Although locals have been impressed and expressed their gratitude for improving the quality of life in their corner of the world (“The place is so awesome. We never expected that they could turn this dirty Manila bayside into a paradise”), Manila Bay and its rehabilitation, including the creation of Dolomite Beach, still had its set-backs and its critics with their opinions that rather unfortunately wafted over the bay as the former foul breeze once did.
Photo Capture: DENROfficial
There are a lot of news articles about the subject of Manila Bay and Dolomite Beach. Quite a lot cover the controversy surrounding anything from the use of dolomite and its impact on the environment, suggestion that Dolomite Beach is some kind of “land reclamation” rather than a serious attempt at conservation, to suggesting that the rehabilitation (although desperately needed) was ill timed and the budget should have been spent on something more-vague, such as the response to Covid-19 - a thing no country knew precisely how to approach.
Let’s take a step back and analyse with objection and perspective. I find myself in a unique position in which to do just that. Although I’m puti, Filipina sa puso. Ang aking asawa ay Filipina (although I'm white, I'm Filipina at heart. My wife is Filipina) and I've benefited by seeing the Philippines from an outsider’s perspective and then from within. Syempre, my perspective and consequential analysis is still my own and therefore not all-encompassing. However, due to not having been indoctrinated from birth in Philippine politics (we’ve all been indoctrinated, the system attempted to mould me in a Western fashion BCE or “Before Conscious Era”) or possessing a set opinion inherited from generations going back to Jose Rizal, I benefit from not viewing the situation through a lens tainted with emotion, old prejudices or preferences for the opinion of a particular side. That gives a person a unique, objective perspective in an ocean of subjective, emotional opinions. Instead of having to figure out motives and meanings behind all the claims before getting to some kind of truth, let’s get straight to it through critical analysis.
We will cover:
Was the rehabilitation of Manila Bay a success and worth the almost 400 million pesos spent?
Has it positively impacted the health of the environment and the people (in a time of crisis or otherwise) more than any form of traditional government support?
Was the rehabilitation of something akin to a festering, gangrenous wound a better idea than spending the money on a one-off support payment (like a few sacks of rice or laptop computers for students)?
Is Dolomite Beach a danger to the environment and locals, including their standard of living as well as local small business?
What benefit has Dolomite Beach brought to the community?
Let’s start at the very beginning.
A Brief History of Manila Bay
It is considered one of the world’s greatest harbours. Most of the attributes that make it so are all natural – an immense shoreline, deep waters, protection from mountain ranges and even an island in the middle fortified for defence and registration purposes, aptly named Corregidor Island by the Spanish. However, long before the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, Manila Bay played a crucial role in the commercial endeavours of the Tagalog people, connecting them to trade with their modern day South East Asian neighbours. As an indication of its significance, the occupation of the Spanish prompted a Chinese pirate to fight for its control in 1574 CE. As the Tagalog language would indicate, the Spanish won that fight and an army of approximately 3000 on the Chinese side were wasted in the attempt – surely a considerable price for a bay, even by today’s standards.
For 250 years (only ending in 1815), Mania Bay was the most westerly station of the Acapulco – Manila galleon trade; a route set up by the Spanish that transferred luxury goods and new world silver between Mexico and the Philippines. Today, there are preparations being made to list the Acapulco – Manila galleon trade route on the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
It wasn’t until 1898 that a force strong enough to release the Spanish chokehold on the Philippines came along. In what became known as the Battle for Manila Bay, American forces conquered the Spanish fleet enabling the US to pick up where the Spanish left off. Some 40 years later, after the Philippines was mercilessly bombarded by Japanese forces during WWII, the US, with a lot of help from Philippine forces, once again gained control of Manila Bay. Although the Japanese no longer occupied Manila, the city would never be the same. The battle had left deep scars changing the face of a city that previously had features dating back to its founding.
Now Manila Bay is home to hundreds of thousands of residents. A significant percentage of which are informal settlers – those who have built semi-permanent structures along the bay. Although the rivers and estuaries of Manila Bay support fisheries and aquaculture, a major source of livelihood for locals, the waste of around 233,000 households not connected to sewerage was going directly into Manila Bay. Even if you went vegan, the sight and smell of the rubbish from a bay and surrounding city that millions call home, was surely still enough to make you sick.
The Rehabilitation of Manila Bay - Why Now?
One of the many gripes critics of the Manila Bay rehabilitation project had was the timing of its start. Although the removal of well over 70 million cubic metres of garbage and the creation of a public recreation area clearly has had a direct positive impact on the health of the public, some critics tried to argue that public health was not being made a priority in prioritising the Manila Bay rehab. They were referring to the sudden outbreak of Covid-19 and the need for some kind, any kind, of reaction. If they had a giant panic button, I’m sure the budget would need to include repairs to it due to repeated and vigorous use.
Rather than questioning why it took place during the pandemic, a thing that no common person or country had planned for, the question that probably should be raised is: why the delay?
Firstly, the budget for the rehabilitation project was finalised in 2019, before the Covid-19 pandemic. Public funds cannot be redirected at the whims of minor senators trying to discredit the sitting government, their opposition – it doesn’t work that way for the sake of stability.
Secondly, the rehabilitation of Manila Bay and the creation of Dolomite Beach didn’t happen overnight, nor did the decision to undertake the project. It was over a decade in the making, from the initial mandamus from the highest judicial authority in the land to the detailed, step-by-step plans created by the local government authorities tasked to clean up Manila Bay.
Rather than questioning why it took place during the pandemic, a thing that no common person or country had planned for, the question that probably should be raised is: why the delay? If the Supreme Court issued its mandamus in 2008, why was it not until 2019 that the rehabilitation program officially began? As the sitting president during the rehabilitation of Manila Bay, Rodrigo Duterte said, "For so many years, you had every chance to do it. Was there anybody willing to take the problem by its horns?"
As with anything that requires the co-operation of a number of government bodies, politics and the combative environment it fosters can slow progress indefinitely – why get on with it when you can argue and hear the sound of your own voice all day every day instead? And also, whenever there is a big budget concerned, there will be those that want to make sure that they are not short-changed.
The clean-up of Manila Bay was clearly a better long-term alternative for public health, and the computations of what can be bought with 28 million pesos, a cheap party trick.
Indeed, Sen. Francis Pangilinan, from the Senate minority bloc, said that with the 28 million pesos it cost to transport dolomite from Cebu to Manila, the government could have provided 189,000 sacks of rice or 26,000 laptops for teachers and students. Sure, the government could have done that, but where would the public be now with that one sack of rice per household their family received once, or even that one laptop their child or child’s classroom received that one time? No better off than they were before the start of the pandemic. The clean-up of Manila Bay was clearly a better long-term alternative for public health, and the computations of what can be bought with 28 million pesos, a cheap party trick.
It’s becoming clearer with every passing week that the virus, apart from affecting people physically, caused significant mental distress and strain. Arguably, as the general public become more immune to the virus through natural or artificial ways, the mental toll of the pandemic seems to be worse. What better way then, to fight the mental health pandemic that we currently find ourselves in thanks to the official covid-19 pandemic, than doing something useful and beneficial for the community – something that offers an escape to nature, encourages exercise, promotes the importance of a clean environment, promotes local pride and involves locals in the maintenance through providing them with something to proudly protect. Plus, how do diseases and viruses begin? One significant source is lack of hygiene.
With Dolomite Beach being a public work that is very visible and used every day by the public, and the benefits of having a clean, safe public space for all on display for all to see, it’s pretty obvious now which was the better choice for a nation not just hit by a global pandemic, but one worn and weary from decades of questionable use of public funds.
Instead of why now? Another question to ask is: why was it not the Arroyo government, presiding at the time the Supreme Court mandamus was issued, that ensured the rehabilitation project was started and followed through to the end? Ok, it could be argued that there was a global financial crisis in 2008. Why was it not the following Aquino government then? Why was the Duterte administration able to budget for the rehabilitation of Manila Bay and the previous Aquino government not able?
As Cimatu of the DENR put it, "(The project happened) Thanks to the creation in February 2019 by President Rodrigo Roa Duterte of the Inter-Agency Manila Bay Task Force, led by the DENR, to expedite the rehabilitation of the bay’s degraded coastal and marine ecosystems". Indeed, actions speak louder than words.
As with anything in life, be it small or national scale, sometimes things just have to be done no matter the uncontrollable external circumstances – otherwise nothing would ever be done or improved upon.
Even without a global pandemic, it was never going to be the “perfect” time to undertake a project that is both immense in scale and cost. As with anything in life, be it small or national scale, sometimes things just have to be done no matter the uncontrollable external circumstances – otherwise nothing would ever be done or improved upon. Someone had to take the bull by the horns.
As far as diverting the budget to anything deemed “Covid related” from where it had already been allocated, that would have further crippled a country already struggling with a massive wealth gap. Millions of pesos would have been spent somewhere and the general public would have experienced a very minimal positive effect, if any effect at all, from the exercise. Given that a sack of rice will only go so far in a Philippine household that often supports a number of extended family members, and given the number of homeless with no fixed address and therefore no guarantee of getting anything from their local government, it poses the question of exactly how tens of millions of pesos is usually used in so called times of crisis, like the pandemic, beyond a little ayuda.
No matter your opinion of Dolomite Beach, at least the money was spent on something benefitting the health, both mental and physical, of the community at large and long-term. It is also promising a brighter environmental future - see environmental impact.
What Impact Has the Refurbishment Had on the Area and on the Locals?
While it would seem that there is significant support for criticising the Manila Bay rehabilitation effort, those voices in politics, while indeed loud, are actually in the minority. After all, the proof of the pudding is in the eating, not in the hurling across the room of it. Since its opening, local residents have enjoyed using Dolomite Beach for recreation, watching the famous Manila Bay sunset and absorbing a new surrounding that is a source of pride rather than disease.
Photo by: China D @projectgoals.ph
Thousands attended the opening of Dolomite Beach in September 2020, when it was just a layer of sand, and again in 2021 with the crushed dolomite surface. Just like the rehabilitation program itself, the opening occurred in the middle of the pandemic. Of course, amongst the excitement of the general public, critics were quick to criticize, pointing out that there was a lack of social distancing, and possibly even face mask wearing, as the public enjoyed their new clean beach. It’s rather ironic considering that Manila Bay rotted under the Philippine sun for decades and smelled worse than a sewer before the mandatory use of face masks for public health – and that was ok. Where were the critics and their concern for public health back then?
Those interviewed by a television crew at the beach were all profuse with their praises, with an elderly man in tears saying that this was his first time to see Manila Bay like this after all these years.
- Manila Bulletin
It’s not just local residents that have been able to enjoy Dolomite Beach and Manila Bay. People have travelled from all over the Philippines to see the white beach for themselves and have not been disappointed. In fact, their testimonies signify that the rehabilitation has gone beyond expectations – very interesting considering that the rehabilitation is still not yet complete. The final stages will see that water clean enough for swimming.
Beyond being a place for recreation and mental health, Dolomite Beach has become a source of pride for locals. This kind of pride transcends some kind of boorish patriotism, it’s a positive pride that begets good deeds and intentions, perpetuating the work started by the government for (hopefully) generations. It gives locals something to keep clean and to protect for themselves and any who may visit from any corner of the world.
Proud and Grateful: “To our President Rodrigo Duterte, thank you so much for all the infrastructures, for the services, for our country’s security, for all the help. You made all your promises since Day 1”
In making Manila Bay fit for locals, the area can become fit for international visitors. On a national scale, the rehabilitation of Manila Bay has given the area a chance to replenish economically as with every drop of clean water, national and international tourists are encouraged to venture beyond Rizal Park. The massive turn-around is surely impressive to any who learn the story. What better way to promote the Philippines, its can-do attitude and its ability to be responsible, on a global scale?
With the success of this rehabilitation program, there comes a sense from all that it is possible to achieve the seemingly impossible. Not only does this bring a positive outlook and attitude en masse, it encourages more projects to be tackled and done so with less resistance each time. It sets the tone for the nation – we are capable and proud. A new bar has been set.
The Environment and Local Business - Is Dolomite dangerous?
“By now, contrary to the earlier claims of critics, it should be clear that dolomite sand is not harmful to people and natural ecosystems, dolomite is widely used for beach nourishment in many countries such as Singapore, France, Portugal, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America,”
Is dolomite dangerous? Let’s begin with a bit of perspective. Before dolomite was crushed and spread over a layer of sand, every square millimetre of the bay was covered in festering rubbish and the water contained faecal coliform levels of well over 7 million mpn (Most Probable Number. A statistical method used to estimate the number of bacteria in a given sample) per 100mls - if that doesn’t raise your eyebrows, the acceptable safe level for swimming is considered to be just 100 mpn per 100 mls of water.
Dolomite is a mineral made of calcium magnesium carbonate which is not known to be toxic. In fact, it is commonly used in everyday situations that require a clean environment. Dolomite is used in aquariums, added to soils as a PH buffer, it is a source of magnesium and it regulates the PH levels of salty water while protecting coastal properties from erosion – seems like it would be handy on something like a beach, di ba?
Still, some critics point out that the Supreme Court only mandated that the water be made clean (enough for swimming and other water activities) and that creating a beach was just a beautification project. Beautification or not, it certainly helps a person go swimming when there’s a handy beach. Plus, creating dolomite beaches are another method of environmental rehabilitation – an alternative to sea walls.
Indeed, in 2011, Typhoon Pedring destroyed the sea walls of Manila Bay. The typhoon didn’t muck around - the United States Embassy, Museo Pambata and the Sofitel Philippine Plaza were also flooded. Considering that the Philippines is consistently hit with several typhoons every year, a beach nourishment project such as Dolomite Beach made more practical sense than the sea wall alternative.
If decades of using this natural mineral in environmental situations around the world with no ill effects to the environment isn’t substantial enough evidence for opposing senators, then perhaps it’s not the dolomite itself that’s the problem.
Despite being a fallacy, in a seemingly desperate attempt to have their way or sabotage those against them along the way, it was suggested by some that dolomite stone is somehow dangerous to the environment and public health. Senator Binay, a politician opposed to the methods of cleaning up Manila Bay, said:
“Using dolomite as a substitute for white sand only means that the Manila Bay rehabilitation did not go through the appropriate process and studies.”.
It seems that senator Binay didn’t go through the appropriate research because, as we all know, white sand will just wash away with the next storm. The dolomite is there for a reason. If decades of using this natural mineral in environmental situations around the world with no ill effects to the environment isn’t substantial enough evidence for opposing senators, then perhaps it’s not the dolomite itself that’s the problem.
Among all their suggestions for how the budget money should be diverted, the one thing these senators failed to mention is the very practical reason that dolomite was chosen over sand, that it acts as a barrier to erosion – a problem for coastal areas in typhoon prone countries like the Philippines.
It wouldn’t be too presumptuous then to say that dolomite, a natural non-toxic mineral, is not dangerous to the health of the environment or people (unless you wanted to see how it tasted which is not recommended) and it’s certainly not as dangerous as an open pit of disease-causing rubbish, cooking under the Philippine sun right next to residences and businesses. So, politicians still hoping to convince unsuspecting members of the public that dolomite is going to destroy Manila Bay and all it harbours can stop the scare tactics.
As for the local aquaculture industry that had been operating for decades and seemed to have been threatened with the rehabilitation:
“Years of unsustainable aquaculture and fishing practices, exacerbated by industrial and waste pollution, have taken a toll on the bay’s marine life and water quality. Fisherfolk living along the 19-kilometer (12-mile) coastline have reported dwindling fish catches; mass fish die-offs and red tide alerts prompted by algal blooms are an annual occurrence.”
The problems of the aquaculture industry in Manila Bay began long before an ounce of dolomite was present. Now, with a clean, safe environment and hopefully some restraint from unsustainable fishing practices no longer acceptable in a modern world, perhaps the fish population has a chance of increasing.
Was it Worth Doing?
Whether there is a complete consensus on exactly how and when Manila Bay was to be cleaned up, and at what financial cost, is really a moot point. The real point is – it was finally done.
Firstly, you’re never going to please everyone. A family of four, for example, can barely agree on what to have for dinner - is a population of millions going to have the exact same opinion on a given subject? Of course not.
Secondly, as mentioned above, the results speak for themselves. Not only is Manila Bay clean enough for the environment to begin healing itself, the dolomite beach and surrounding clean walking areas have already had a positive impact on the people population. From observing and speaking with beach-goers, it’s clear that Dolomite Beach has improved general mental health as well as physical health – all that walking and frolicking has to burn some calories.
And then, there’s legacy. A white dolomite beach from where Manila residents and visitors from all over the world can sit and watch the sun set over the clear waters of Manila Bay, then use the solar powered wash rooms before leaving, is no doubt a mark better left than that of an open sewer. After all, battles have been fought at great cost and won by Filipinos just to preserve what is theirs – this great Manila Bay. Let’s honour them by keeping and protecting it always – no matter the cost.
Location and How to Get There
The Manila Baywalk Dolomite Beach is located in Manila Bay, on Roxas Blvd, opposite the US Embassy.
Opening Times/Appointment System
 The Manila Baywalk Dolomite Beach is open to the public daily (except Thursday due to maintenance) from 6am – 6pm.
When the beach re-opened to visitors in December 2021, visitors were required to make an appointment online the day before their visit – this is no longer required.
Entry to Dolomite Beach is FREE. Simply enter and exit near the US Embassy on Roxas Blvd.
Swimming, Water Sports & Fishing
Although water quality continues to improve, at this time, swimming, all water sports and fishing are currently not allowed at the Dolomite Beach.
When Phase Three of the Mandamus Beach is completed, and if there is an ambient water reading of 100 MPN/100ml, these activities will be permitted at Dolomite Beach.
As of June 2022, ambient test results of the beach area average 900 MPN/100 mL.
Testing is done weekly by the EMB-NCR.
Considering that water test results were around 10,000,000+/- MPN/100 mL in January 2020, a reading of under 1000 is a dramatic improvement to say the least. Most importantly, levels are still heading in the right, downward direction.
Food, Drink & Smoking
Food, drinks (with exception of water) and smoking are not allowed on the beach.
Masks & Vaccination
For the time being, visitors must wear masks upon entry to the beach. We will update you if there is any change to this rule.
Vaccination cards are not mandatory for beach entry.
Dogs and other pets are not allowed on the beach.
Two solar-powered restrooms are available along the Manila Baywalk (one near the U.S. Embassy and one near the Manila Yacht Club).
Each location has 2-4 water closets, 2-3 urinals, 2-3 shower cubicles and an area for lactation and/or diaper-changing.
For bicycles, there are multiple bike stands for public use located both at the beach entry and in the nearby, immediate area.
As the beach does not have a private parking area, both car and motorcycle parking is often available along the Roxas Boulevard Service Road on a first-come, first-serve basis.
There are also multiple, private parking lots (fee required) nearby in the immediate vicinity of the beach. If you don’t want to search and search, Robinson’s Place Manila is nearby and almost always has available parking.
Security and/or law enforcement are present 24-hours, every day. Guard stations will also be placed inside the facility.
Additionally, there are both solar-powered lights and CCTV along the Baywalk and beach — as a result, the area will be well-lit and monitored 24 hours each day.
 Rodney Maranan, 40, a father of two and IT by profession, has shared how wonderful their Independence Day celebration has been by visiting the dolomite beach. The Philippine News Agency. back to blog
 "Opening Times" through to "Security" from https://manilabaybeach.com/beach-information/